Ph.D., English, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Major areas of concentration: Renaissance literature and critical theory. Completed May 2001.
M.A., English, Bread Loaf School of English, Middlebury, Vermont. Completed August 1986.
B.S., English, University of Minnesota College of Education, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Completed January 1981.
B.A., History, Saint Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota. Completed May 1973.